Gardening Basics

August 5, 2015

Gardening has many benefits from health to exercise and many things inbetween. 

1. Location & Size of Your Plot

  • Select a site that receives a minimum of 6 hours sunlight a day. Your seed packet will tell you what location the variety is suited to, be it full-sun or part-shade.
  • The size of your garden is determined by how much space you have, the time you have available to tend to it and how much fresh produce you require. If you are short on space, fear not, you can still have a productive garden by using compact/dwarf varieties or climbing plants that can grow up, not out. There are many vegetable and flower varieties perfect for containers and small planters.

 

2. Soil Preparation

  • The soil must be well prepared prior to planting. Seeds need a soil that is easy to break through to aid in germination. Thoroughly dig the soil and remove any weeds and rocks in the process. Add organic matter in the form of compost or manure to provide nutrients, improve soil structure and ensure good drainage. Rake the bed smooth and level to make sowing your seeds easier and finally water the bed thoroughly before sowing/planting out.
  • If starting a garden in a raised bed or container be sure to use good quality soil mix combined with extra compost or rotted manure. Adding peat is also a good option to ensure good water holding capacity in smaller pots/planters which can commonly dry out quite quickly.



3. Planting

  • There are 3 seasonal vegetable categories: Spring sown, Autumn sown and All year round. As the names suggest, they relate to a general sowing time for best performance. Although they use seasons in their name, this does not mean that sowing on the first day of the season is advised. Spring seeds most likely require warm soil to germinate and Autumn seeds may require a Winter chill to start producing fruit so you need to sow accordingly to the actual temperatures in your area not purely based on seasons. More on that later.
  • The ideal sowing depth is about twice the seed diameter. So if a seed is 2mm wide then sow it 4mm deep. Very fine seeds should not be covered, but more just pressed lightly into the soil.
  • Sow seed at the recommended spacing and cover lightly.
  • Refer to the back of seed packet for specific sowing details.
  • Did you know the bigger the seed, generally the easier it is to grow as the seed provides all the nutrients the plant needs to germinate. We suggest beginners start off with Vegetable seeds such as Beans, Corn, Radish and Pumpkin, and Flower seeds such as Sunflowers, Nasturtium, Marigold and Alyssum.
  • If you see F1/F2 in the seed name, this means it is a hybrid variety, this means it is bred to have certain desirable features such as disease resistance, greater yield or extra flavour. Learn more here. Hybrids are not the same as genetically modified seeds. None of Mr Fothergill's seeds are genetically modified.
  • The back of the seed pack will outline when best to sow the specific seed variety in your climate/region. This is a guide based on growing outdoors in the garden. It is possible to grow seeds out of season using a greenhouse and heat pads, this is usually to grow Spring/Summer varieties in cooler months.
  • Soil temperature is very important for seed germination. Seeds require consistent day/night soil temperatures to germinate and thrive. Without this you may end up with low or no germination or seedlings that die. Soil temperature is even more critical for heat loving plants such as chilli and capsicums so be sure to start them when weather conditions are consistently warm.
  • Transplanting - Once your seedlings are around 5cm tall and have their 2nd leaves, they are usually big enough to transplant into the garden. If you started your seeds in reusable pots, be sure to remove the seedling from the pot by holding a leaf, avoid gripping the stem as it is easy to crush it. If your seedling is in a biodegradable Jiffy pot, simply plant the pot-and-all into the garden. Always water in well after transplanting.



4. Care & Maintenance of Your Vegetable Garden

Watering
A consistent approach is required. Too much can cause disease, too little can result in stunted growth or even plant death. A good soak every few days is recommended (may need to be more frequent in very hot conditions). This encourages deep root systems and greater tolerance to dry weather.

Mulching
Mulch is spread over the garden surface to retain moisture in the soil, suppress weeds and keep the soil warm/cool. It also helps improve soil structure and quality as it decomposes. Sugarcane, woodchip/bark or lawn clippings make good organic mulch.

Fertilising
Fertilising your plants during the growing season and improving the soil between crops can be done with either concentrated chemical fertilisers, or with organic manures or compost. The organic options include farmyard manure, household or garden compost, ready compost mixes and green manure. Green manures are fast growing plants (often legumes) that are sown between seasons. Dig them into the soil when mature to provide nitrogen and organic matter as they rot.

Pest & Disease Control
The first line of defence against disease and pests is the use of preventive practices that include:

  • Maintaining a weed-free garden with wide, dry aisles
  • Pruning leaves off the ground
  • Watering the root area and avoiding the foliage
  • Considering the layout of your garden to maximise sunlight and air circulation, and to reduce humidity buid-up
  • Companion planting - using herbs and flowers to deter pests.
  • Rotating crops, which means alternating the varieties of vegetables grown in one place from year to year. It lessens pest and disease problems that are common amongst same family vegetables, and avoids soil being depleted of nutrients used up by a particular type of a vegetable. If these controls are not enough you have a choice of using organic or chemical pest and disease treatments.

5. Troubleshooting

I've grown Weeds - So you've been nurturing your seeds and watching them grow into seedlings to find out that they are not what you expected and are in fact weeds. The chances are your weren't sold weed seeds, more likely the reason is dormant weed seeds in your soil. Seeds can remian dormant in soil for many years waiting for the perfect conditions to germinate and grow, so when you prepare your soil for sowing and add goodies like compost and fertiliser and start to water the soil, you are creating that optimal environment for germination, unfortunately not just for your seeds but for any weeds in the soil too. Starting seeds in pots or punnets using a good quality seed raising mix or Jiffy soil pellets will help with germinating your seeds if your garden was previously weedy. 

Seeds didn't germinate - Seeds require optimal growing conditions to germinate, here are just some of the many reasons why your seeds may not germinate:

  • Soil temperature -
  • Poor quality soil -
  • Not enough light/sown too deep - Seeds require light to germinate, without light they cannot start on their growing journey. If your seeds are sown too deep there is a chance they 
  • Soil too wet, soil too dry,
  • Weed competition,
  • Seed coating too hard,
  • Old seed or poor quality seed - If you bought your seed from a reputable seed supplier, they would have tested the germination rate to ensure that the seed was of a suitable quality to be sold. As like all living things, seeds are perishable meaning they have a finite lifespan, this varies depending on the seed variety so check the seed packet for the sow by date. As seeds age they become less viable meaning you may see a decline in the germination rate meaning you may need to sow more seeds than what you wish to grow to compensate for a lower strike rate.
  • Poor storage of seeds - Seed storage is important for the longevity and viability of your seeds. We recommend storing your seeds in a cool, dry place, ideally out of the light. Sealing in an aitright container is also a good idea. Once your seed packet has been opened, we suggest storing any unused seeds in the sachet/packet they came in, folded over to create a seal. Store as mentioned above.

Hydrophobic soil

Poor growth